1 2 3 4 5 6 7

B- despite/ in spite of/ regardless of/ with all

بالرغم من



D- however

however= but

1 The film was exciting, however I fell asleep.

However= Although



1 However

bad

the weather was, we went fishing. = Though the weather was bad,..

2 However

slowly

he works, he is clever. = Although he works slowly, he…

E- as= although



1 Bad

as

the weather was, we went fishing.

2 Slowly

as

he works, he is clever.

A- because/ since/ as

لان



B- because of/ owing to/ due to/ on account of

بسبب



A-

so

/

therefore

/ consequently/subsequently/ as a result /

that'swhy

/ accordingly/ hence/ thus.

لذلك

Note:

The exam will be difficult, so study hard. (that's why)

The exam will be difficult, that's why you should study hard.

B- so…that

جدا

.......

لدرجة ان



1 The film was so boring that I fell asleep. OR

So boring was the film

that…..

2 He was working so slowly that the supervisor rebuked him.



C- such….that

جدا

......

لدرجة ان



- It was such a boring film that I fell asleep. OR Such a boring film was it that...

B- …not only….



1 She not only gets up early but also, she takes exercises.

2 Not only does she get up early but also, she takes exercises.

3 Not only does she get up early, she takes exercises.

C- …neither …nor…

- He neither

swims

nor

dives

. OR Neither does he swim nor dives.

لا هذا ولا ذاك

-

/ either …..or -She is either a doctor or a nurse

اما هذا او ذاك

-

استخدم

too

فى نهاية الجملة المثبتة بمعنى ايضا

: -

استخدم

either

فى نهاية الجملة المنفية بمعنى ايضا

:

A- to/ in order to/ so as to + inf.

لكى

1 The big man used a pickaxe to destroy the wall.

2 He didn't attend the party in order not to meet his ex-wife.

3 The robbers were in disguise in order not to be seen by the police.

B- so that/ in order that

لكى



1 The big man used a pickaxe so that he could destroy the wall.

2 She

has worked

day and night in order that she can save enough money.

3 I was saving up money so that I wouldn't run into debt.

16, 17, 18



needn't = need not

لا تتغير صورتها

مضارع

needn't + inf-----needn't have + p.p

ماضى

didn't have to/ didn't need to

الحدث لم يتم

needn't have + p.p

الحدث تم

القدرة

5-Ability



- He can dive. = He is able to dive. = He is capable of diving.

- He could dive. = He was able to dive. He was capable of diving.

- Note:

could = (had the ability but didn't do) / was/ were bale to = (managed/ did)

- Thanks to my mother's help, I......pass the exam. ( could-

was able to

)

- Other uses for ( can / could )

- Request :

Can ? Could I use your camera ?

- Offer :

Can ? Could I get you something else ?

- Permission :

Can / Could I leave early today, sir ?

-

Remember :

could = might (deduction)

۩

fit

يناسب

(

من حيث المقاس

)

۩

suit

يناسب

(

من حيث الشكل

)

۩

match

يتماشي مع

(

للأشياء

)



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- عند ذكر المدة الزمنية بشرط ألا تبدأ الجملة ب - Model Exam a a-language functions

səhifə7/7
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-

عند ذكر المدة الزمنية بشرط ألا تبدأ الجملة ب

after/ as soon as -

لتوضيح سبب لنتيجة ما مع ملاحظة الافعال التى لا يلتحق بها

ing

مثل

:

get/ win/ run out

-They

had been talking for two hours

when the light went out.

-

After

they

had talked for two hours

, the light went out.

-Ali was

tired

because he

had been running

./ -The car

stopped

because it

had run out

of fuel.

to + inf or ing

-enjoy- avoid- finish- practice- recommend- mind-fancy + ing

-arrange- deserve-demand-wish-attempt-threaten-dare + to + inf

-

ثلاث حالات ل

suggest1

-

يليها

ing 2-

يليها

that + S + inf

حتى لو كان الفاعل مفرد

3-

يليها

to + inf

اذا كانت مبنبة للمجهول ا وفى السؤال المبدوء ب

what

-I suggested having lunch outdoors. I suggest

that she go to the doctor

.

-What do you suggest to solve this problem?-They are suggested to log onto the internet.

go on + ing/

يستكمل ما كان يفعله

go on to + inf

ينتقل لممارسة فعل اخر

-

She drank some water and went on talking. / She talked to me and went on to talk to another client.

-

هذه الافعال يليها

ing

اذا كان الحدث بعدها قد تم

/////////////////////////////

ويليها

to + inf

ا ذا كان الحدث بعدها لم يتم

.

regret/ forget/ remember/ try/ stop

-I forgot ……the homework so the teacher punished me. (doing -

to do

)

لم افعل الواجب

-I forgot……her before, so she reminded me. (

meeting

– to meet)

قابلتها و نسيت فذكرتنى

-I regret ……to the beach yesterday. ( no to go-

not going)

الحدث هو عدم الذهاب و قد تم

-

اداة الاستفهام فى وسط الجملة يليها فاعل ثم فعل او

to + inf

هذه الافعال يليها مفعول ثم

to + inf

ask- advise- force- teach- warn- persuade- support- convince- instruct

Units 13,14,15

-

للإشارة للأشخاص استخدم

who

ولا تستخدم

that

فى الجملة الاعتراضية

:

-

للإشارة للأشياء استخدم

which

ولا تستخدم

that

فى الجملة الاعتراضية

:

-Mr. Adel,

who

/ that lives next door, is travelling abroad.

-The new house,

which

/ that we bought, needs a lot of repairs.

-

يمكن استخدام

whom

للاشارة للاشخاص بشرط الا ياتى بعدها فعل

:

-I congratulated my colleague

who/ whom

the manager rewarded.

-

يجوز حذف

who/ which

اذا جاء بعدهما اسم او ضمير

:

-This is

the man we met

yesterday. = who/ whom we met.

-

استخدم

whom

ولا تستخدم

who

اذا سبقها حر ف جر و جاء بعدها اسم ا ضمير

:

-We must be respectful to our teachers

to whom

we owe much. (object)

-We had an argument

about who

scored the goal.(subject)

-

يمكن ان تحل

that

محل

where/ when:

بشرط ان يسبقها المكان؟ الزمان

-1970 was the year

when/ that

my mother was born.

-This is the town

where/ that

my father was born.


-

استخدم

whose

للاشارة للملكية و لا بد ان يليها اسم و تحل محل

his, her, their, its…..:

-Mr. Amr, whose son was injured, was very sad.

-

انتبه

:

هذه الكلمات اسم وفعل

:

stay, cut, pay, wish,

-The soldier who/

whose

cuts were serious was taken to hospital.

-what

لتساوى

which

فى الاشارة للأشياء بشرط ألا يسبقها اسم

:

-Would you tell us

what

you had seen?

in +

ملبس

, with +

جزء من الجسم – المرض

-What is the name of the girl

with

dark hair? = who has got dark hair.

-Did you see the tall man

in

a black coat? = who was wearing black coat.

- all / everything/ something/ anything/ nothing are followed by (that) NOT (which/ who)

This is

all that

you asked me to buy.

-

الزمان و المكان يشار اليهما باستخدام

which:

-

المكان و حرف الجر يحل محلهما

where:

-

الزمان و حرف الجر يحل محلهما

:when

, in Cairo = where , Cairo = which

This is the town

where

I was born./This is the town

which

I was born

in.

(…I was born

in this town.

)

This is the town

inwhich

I was born./ This is the town

where

I was born

in 1972

.

This is the town

which

I visited last year. (……I visited this town last year)

I love spring

when

the weather is fine. (……………..the weather is fine

in spring

)

I love spring

which

the weather is fine

in

./ I love spring

in which

the weather is fine.

***

I hope to visit

Paris which

is the capital of France.( sent 2:

Paris

is the capital of France.)

I hope to visit

Paris where

my father worked for years. (Sent 2: My father worked

in Paris

...

-

جملة الموصول تختصر الى تصريف ثالث اذا وصفت مفعول

(

مبنى للمجهول

)

Books

which were written

by Naguib Mahfouz are still read.

Books

written

by Naguib Mahfouz are still read.

-

جملة الموصول تختصر الى

ing

اذا وصفت فاعل

:

The man

who wore

a hat spoke English.

The man

wearing

a hat spoke English.

in which – by which – for which- at which – on which – with which



  • لمعرفة حرف الجر المناسب قبل

    which

    انظر الى الفعل او الصفة فى الجملة الثانية



-This is

the knife by which he was kille

d. This is

the knife with which he killed

the guard.

-reply to/ object to/ mean by/ apologize for/ keen on/ interested in/ belong to

-

الجملة الفعلية تحتوى على فعل بينما الجملة الاسمية لا تحتوى على فعل

:

لاحظ التالى

:

-……………

running your own business is hard

, it's enjoyable.

فعلية

-……………

taking physical exercises regularly

, she is unfit.

اسمية

A- although/ even though/ though/ even if

رغم



جملة فعلية


although

though

even though

even if


جملة اسمية

the fact that + S + V



despite

in spite of

regardless of

with all



However + adj + S + V, ……………………..

However + adv + S + V,……………………..



Adj + as + S + V,……………………….

Adv + as + S + V,………………………


جملة فعلية



because

since

as


جملة اسمية

the fact that + S + V



because of

owing to

due to

on account of



……

.so + adj/ adv + that + S + V…



that



---



..so



that



-----



----



……

such



It is/ was such + adj + noun + that + S + V.



Not only + inversion,………

Not only + inversion + but also, ………



Present tense + so that + S + can/ will + inf…….



Past tense + so that + S + could/ would + inf…….



لاداعى



لازم



don’t have to

don’t need to doesn’t have to

doesn’t need to

needn’t

***

didn’t have to

needn’t have + p.p

***

won’t have to



must

have to / has to

have got to/ has got to

need to/ needs to

***

had to

***

will have to



past



present



could + inf

can + inf

was/were able to + inf

am/is/are able to + inf

was/were capable of + ing

am/is/are capable of + ing
?


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