78 HAZARA DISTRICT - I m p e r I a L g a z e t t ee r o f I n d I a vol. X i I i
Hazara under its former name Urasa (the modern Rash or Orash)
before the Muhammadan occupation, are found here and there.
Hazara District contains 4 towns and 914 villages. Its population
at each of the last four enumerations was: (1868)
opuation. 367,218, (1881) 407,075, (1891) 516,288, and (1901)
560,288. The principal statistics of population in 1901 are shown
Area in square
nber ofV be
Population.Population per |
persons able to
Mânsehra . .Total
Tanâwal . .
7 ' 5
3 5 9
1 0 - 3
3 . 5 3 5
Population has increased by
per cent, during the last decade,
the increase being greatest in the Abbottâbâd
and least in that
The head-quarters of these
are at the places
Gali with Dungâ Gali (the former being the summer head-quarters
the hill cantonments of Bàra Gali, Kâlâ Bagh, Khaira Gali, and Ghora
Dakka. Muhammadans number
or more than
per cent,of the total ; Hindus,
The language spoken
is chiefly a dialect of Western Punjabi, known locally as Hindki.
Pashtü is spoken on the Black Mountain border, and the Güjars have
a dialect of their own called Gîijarï.
In Hazara, Pathâns are not the predominant race. They number
only 55,000, while the Güjars, who profess to be aborigines, number
92,000, and the Awâns 91,000. Tanaolis (59,000), though not Pathâns,
are closcly allied to them by customs and tradition. Dhünds, another
aboriginal tribe, number 25,000, Swâtis 33,000, and Kharrals 16,000.
The Saiyids (23,000) exercise great influence over the other Muham
madans. Of the trading classes, Khattrls number 13,000 and Aroras
only 4,000. Brahmans number 5,000. Of the artisan classes, the
Julâhàs (weavers, 16,000), Tarkhans (carpenters, ir,ooo), Mochls
(shoemakers and leather-workers, 9,000), and Lohars (blacksmiths,
9,000) are the most important. The Kashmiris, who live mainly by
woollen industries, number 15,000. The chief menial classes are the
Nais (barbers, 7,000) and Musallis (sweepers, 3,000). About 2,000
persons returned themselves as Turks, descendants of the Turkomans
who came with Timur in 1391. Agriculture supports 72 per cent, of
The Church Missionary Society opened a branch at Abbottabad in
1899, and the Peshawar branch of the society has an outpost at
Haripur. In 1901, the District contained 17 native Christians.
The level, portion of the District enjoys a seasonable and constant
rainfall of about 30 inches; the soil is better than that of the hill
tracts and more easily cultivated, and the spring har-
A g r
vest is accordingly superior. The best irrigated and
manured lands are equal to the most fertile in the Punjab, and theharvests are more certain than in the adjacent District of Rawalpindi.
The low dry hills have a climate and rainfall similar to that of the
plains, but the soil is much poorer. In the temperate hills and high
land in the middle of the District the rainfall averages 47 inches, and
snow falls occasionally; the autumn crop is here the more valuable,
but a fair proportion of spring crops are raised. The mountain tracts
have an excessive rainfall and a severe winter ; so that there is but
little spring harvest. The soil in the open portion of the District is
deep and rich, the detritus of the surrounding hills being lodged in the
basin-like depressions below; the highlands have a shallow and stony
covering, compensated for by the abundant manure obtained from the
flocks of sheep and cattle among the mountain pastures. The spring
harvest, which in 1903-4 formed 41 per cent, of the total crops
harvested, is sown in the higher hills in October, and lower down in
November and December ; the autumn crops are sown in the hills in
June and July, while in the lower lands seed-time varies from April to
August with the nature of the crop.
The District is held chiefly on the patfiddri and bhaiydchard tenures,zamlnddri lands covering about 339 square miles. The following
table shows the main statistics of cultivation in 1903-4, areas being in ,
square miles :— Ta/isil.
Total. Cultivated. Irrigated. Forests.
Total , 2,858¡,858
Maize covers the largest area, being grown on 273 square miles in
The cultivated area has increased by xo per cent, since the settle
ment in 1874. The chief field for extension lies on the hill-sides,
large areas of which can be brought under cultivation by terracing;
but until the pressure of the population on the soil becomes much
heavier than it is at present, there is little prospect of any considerable
progress in this direction. Nothing has been done to improve the
quality of the crops grown. The potato was introduced shortly after
annexation, and is now largely cultivated. A sum of Rs. 14,700 is
outstanding up to date on account of loans to agriculturists, and
Rs. 4,856 was advanced during 1903-4 for this purpose.
Cattle are most numerous in the hilly portions of the District. The
breed is small, and the cows are poor milkers, but the introduction
of bulls from Hissar has done a good deal to improve the quality of
the stock. Sheep and goats are grazed in the District in large numbers,
chiefly by Gujars ; the larger flocks migrate at different seasons of the
year between Kagan and Lower Hazara or Rawalpindi. The sheep
are of the ordinary thin-tailed breed, and attempts to cross them with
English stock and to introduce merino sheep are being made. Sheep
and goats are largely exported to the cantonments and towns in
Peshawar, Rawalpindi, and Jhelum. The local breed of horses is
small; the Civil Veterinary department maintains seven horse and
twenty-one donkey stallions, and one horse and two pony stallions are
kept by the District board. The Abbottabad and Mansehra tahsils
possess a large number of mules. A few camels are kept in Lower
The area irrigated in 1903-4 was 52 square miles, or 8 per cent,
of the cultivated area. Of this, only 1-4 square miles were supplied by
wells, 377 in number, which are confined to the Indus bank and the
plain round Haripur. They are built for the most part of boulder
masonry, and are worked by bullocks with Persian wheels. The chief
method of supply is by cuts from the Harroh, Dor, and Siran rivers
and minor hill streams. The undulating formation of the valleys, and
the ravines which intersect them, make any considerable extension of
irrigation very difficult.
The two main classes of forests in Hazara District are : the ‘ reserved ’
forests, in which only few rights of user are admitted, although the
For sts villagers are entitled to a share in the price of the
’ trees felled for sale; and the village forests, in which
Government retains a similar share, but which are otherwise practically
left to the charge of the villagers, subject to the control of the Deputy-
reserved ’ forests, which are situated mainly in the north and
TRADE A AD COMMUNICATIONS
east, cover 235 square miles, and yield annually about 80,000 and40.000 cubic feet of deodar and other timber, respectively. The Jhelum
and its tributaries convey the timber not used locally. The most
important forests, which lie between altitudes of 5,000 and 10,000
feet, contain deodar, blue pine, silver fir, spruce, and Quercus incana,d/lataia, and semecarpifolia. In the Gali range, where deodar is
now scarce, trees of hardwood species are abundant, whereas in the
drier Kagan range and in the Upper Siran valley pure deodar forests
are not uncommon, but the variety of species is smaller. Between
10.000 feet and the limit of tree growth at about 12,500 feet, the spruce
and silver fir are the most common. In the south some hardwood
forests of poor quality are of importance for the supply of firewood, and
at elevations between 3,000 and 6,000 feet there is a considerable
extent of forest in which Finns longifolia predominates. Forest fires,
which formerly did much damage, are now becoming less frequent.
Working-plans have been prepared and will shortly come into force for
all the ‘reserved’ forests, which are controlled by the Forest officer in
charge of the division. In 1903-4 the forests yielded a revenue of
The village forests are not so strictly preserved. Those of the
Haripur tahsll and parts of Abbottabad, including Tanawal, produce
only fuel; but in the northern parts of the latter tahsll and in Mansehra
the forests contain coniferous and deciduous trees, which increase in
value as the forests become less accessible. These village forests are
controlled, under the Hazara Forest Regulation of 1893, by the Deputy-
Commissioner through the village headmen, on the principle that the
villagers, while taking without restriction all that they require for their
own needs, shall not be permitted to sell timber or firewood cut from
Of the 1,700 square miles of waste land in the District, only 200 are
clad with timber-producing trees, 200 more forming fuel reserves.
About 200 square miles have been demarcated as village forests, to
check denudation and to prevent waste, while securing the produce
to the villagers for the satisfaction of their needs.
As already mentioned, coal exists in the District, but has not been
worked. Limestone, building stone, and gypsum are abundant, and
coarse slate is found in places. Antimony and oxide of lead have been
observed; and iron occurs in considerable quantities, but is little worked.
The industries of Hazara are of only local importance. The principal
manufacture consists of coarse cotton cloth and cotton strips for use as
turbans. In the northern glens blankets are largely ^ ^
made from sheep’s wool. The domestic art of communications,
embroidering silk on cotton cloth attains a higher
degree of excellence than in any other part of the Province or the
V O L . X I I I .
Punjab, and jewellery of silver and enamel is produced. Water-mills
are used to a considerable extent for grinding flour and husking rice.
Cotton piece-goods, indigo, salt, tobacco, and iron are imported from
Rawalpindi and the south, and a large proportion goes through to
Kashmir and Bajaur, whence the chief imports are wood, fibres, and ghi.
Grain, chiefly maize, is exported to the dry tracts west of Rawalpindi, to
the Khattak country across the Indus, and to Peshawar; a large part
is bought direct from the agriculturists by Khattak merchants who
bring their own bullocks to carry it away. Ghi is exported chiefly to
Peshawar, and sheep and goats are sent to Peshawar and Rawalpindi.
No railways pass through the District. It contains 90 miles of
metalled roads under the Public Works department, and r,x57 miles
of unmetalled roads, of which 406 are under the Public Works depart
ment and the rest are managed by the District board. The principal
route is the metalled road from Hassan Abdal in Attock on the North
Western Railway, which passes through Abbottabad and Mansehra to
Srinagar in Kashmir, crossing the Kunhar, Kishanganga, and Jhelum
rivers by iron suspension bridges. Another route, not passable for
wheeled traffic, connects Abbottabad with the hill station of Murree.
Both routes run through mountainous country, but are kept in excellent
repair, though the latter is in winter blocked by snow. A third road,
from Hazro to Haripur and Abbottabad, is chiefly used by Pathan
traders from Peshawar. A tonga and bullock-train service connects
Hassan Abdal on the North-Western Railway with Abbottabad. The
Kunhar is crossed by several wooden bridges.
Hazara suffered great scarcity in the memorable and widespread
famine of 1783, which affected it with the same severity as the remainder
of Northern India. During the decade ending 1870,Famine. ...
. . .
which was a period of dearth 111 the plains Districts,
the harvests of Hazara produced an excellent yield, and the high price
of grain for exportation gave large profits to the peasantry, besides
affording an incentive to increased cultivation. In 1877-8 Hazara
again experienced scarcity ; but in 1879-80 the yield was abundant, and
high prices ruled during the continuance of the Afghan War. The
District was not seriously affected by the famines of 1896-7 and
The District is divided for administrative purposes into three tahsils—
each under a tahsildar and
. . . . , . naib-tahsildiir. The Deputy-Commissioner, besides
Administration. . . . .
. . ‘
„ v • 1
holding executive charge of the District, is Political
officer in charge of the tribes of the adjacent independent territory.
He has under him a District Judge who is usually also Additional
District Magistrate, an Assistant Commissioner who commands the
border military police, and two Extra-Assistant Commissioners, one
of whom is in charge of the District treasury. The Forest division
is in charge of a Deputy-Conservator.
The Deputy-Commissioner as District Magistrate is responsible for
criminal justice, and civil judicial work is under the District judge.
Both officers are supervised by the Divisional and Sessions Judge of the
Peshawar Civil Division. The District Munsif sits at Abbottabad.
Crime in Hazara is very light for a frontier District.
Sikh rule in Hazara began in 1818. As in the Punjab generally, the
only limit to the rapacity of the kcirdars was the fear of imperilling
future realizations, but up to this limit they exacted the uttermost
farthing. Some parts of Hazara were too barren or too inaccessible
to be worth squeezing, and it may be doubted whether the Sikhs
actually collected more than one-third of the total grain produce.
When Major Abbott made the first summary settlement of Hazara in
1847-8, he took one-third as the fair share of Government. Records
and measurements he neither found nor made, but he assessed each
village after comparison of what it had paid with its degree of impover
ishment. The Sikh demand was reduced by 16 per cent. In 1852
Major Abbott made a second summary settlement, which was in effect
a redistribution of the first, and was less by Rs. 3,000 than his original
demand of Rs. 2,06,000. The fact that the first assessment was easily
paid is evidence of its equity, while the fact that it was reimposed, after
a fall in prices quite unprecedented in both suddenness and extent,
points to the improvement which must have taken place in the cultiva
tion and the general circumstances of the District.
The assessment of 1852 remained in force for twenty years, and
a regular settlement was carried out between 1868 and 1874. The
prosperity of the District had advanced rapidly, and the demand was
increased by 34 per cent, to 3 lakhs. The District again came under
settlement in 1901, when a similar rise in prosperity had to be taken
into account. The new demand shows an increase of Rs. 20,400, or
7 per cent, over the demand for 1903-4.
The collections of land revenue and of total revenue are shown below,
in thousands of rupees :—
Land revenue . .
Total revenue . .
* Including collections from the Attock ta/isi/,
which then formed part of
Outside these municipal areas, local affairs aremanaged by the District board, all the members of which are appointed.
Its income, derived mainly from a cess on the land revenue, amounted
in 1903-4 to Rs. 29,500; and the expenditure was about the same, the
principal item being education.
The regular police force consists of 487 of all ranks, of whom
42 are cantonment and municipal police. The force is controlled by
a Superintendent. The village watchmen number 471. There are
16 police stations, one outpost, and 12 road-posts. The District jail
at head-quarters has accommodation for 114 prisoners. The border
military police, numbering 250, are under the control of the Deputy-
Commissioner exercised through the commandant, an Assistant Com
missioner, and are distinct from the District police.
Only 2-4 of the District population could read and write in 1901, the
proportion of males being 4-35, and of females 1 per cent. Education
is most advanced among Hindus and Sikhs. The number of pupils
under instruction was 872 (in public schools alone) in 1880-1, 8,006 in
1890-1, 5,264 in 1902-3, and 5,439 in 1903-4. In the last year there
were 6 secondary and 33 primary (public) schools, and 18 advanced
and 165 elementary (private) schools, with 103 girls in the public
and 161 in the private schools. The District is very backward in
education. Only 6 per cent, of children of a school-going age are
receiving instruction. Some progress, however, is being made, and
there are two Anglo-vernacular high schools at Abbottabad. The total
expenditure 011 education in 1903-4 was Rs. 24,000, of which the
District fund contributed Rs. 8,000, municipalities Rs. 6,000, and
fees Rs. 4,000.
The District possesses five dispensaries, at which 83,264 cases
were treated in 1904, including 1,266 in-patients, and 2,698 operations
were performed. The expenditure was Rs. 11,500, the greater part of
which was contributed by Local funds.
In 1903-4 the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 10,574,
or 19-5 per 1,000 of the population. [District Gazetteer, 1875 (under revision).]
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